Digital Audio and Digital Image

It might seem strange to think about seeing what you hear a bit like smelling what you see on tv with some kind of smellovision 🙂

but looking at the relationship between the two we can understand their properties.

Sample Rate 

 samples per unit of time  taken from a continuous signal to make a signal. The unit for sampling rate is hertz  (samples per second). The inverse of the sampling frequency is the sampling period or sampling interval, which is the time between samples. In digital audio the most common sampling rates are 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, 96 kHz and 192 kHz

For Compact Disc and other consumer uses, 32 kHz for transmission-related application.

This can be compared with Image Resolution the higher the amount of pixels the clearer the image. For print the resolution should be 72 pixels per inch whereas for print it should at 300 pixels per inch.


Bit Depth describes the number of bits of information recorded for each sample. Bit depth directly corresponds to the resolution of each sample in a set of digital audio data. Common examples of bit depth include CD quality audio, which is recorded at 16 bits, and DVD-Audio, which can support up to 24-bit audio. the lower the bit depth the lower the quality of the sound. Bit depth is similar to pixels in images the lower the amount of pixels in the image the pooer the quality will be.

Number of channels  refers to stereo, mono or multitracks  Stereo uses two channels where as Mono uses one channel.  The number of channels is similar to colour in images.   Stereo may mean the image has colour and mono may mean that the image is seen only in black and white.

Audio compression

this helps to make file sizes smaller while still retaining the quality of the audio. It make it faster to email, save and work with smaller file sizes. Similarily compressing images makes them easier to upload to the web, open in programms, work with and email.

Digital imaages and Digital audio are so similar its easy to learn about one from the other. Handy for us 🙂


The basic rules of good web design: alignment, proximity, repetition and contrast.

is a different kind of sight to say the least. The content appears slightly aggressive to me..


but I suppose everyone is entitled to their opinions. “I invite you to come with me on a journey, so we can attempt to get closer to what is really going on in the world today behind the movie that’s presented to us via the television set.”-Jim.

The website uses a three column grid  and works on a vertical scroll.

The use of allignment is important as it helps to quickly convay a sence of meaning of information. This is essential in web design as viewers spend less time reading onscreen than they would with hard copies of the same information. With this websire there are lots of elements grouped to gether under differet headings Main menu, Springboard One, Latest news. This seems like an organised system except its impossible to find anything. Users don’t know how to locate information as it is overloaded and confusing. There doesn’t seem to be any organization, rationalization and hierarchy of information.

The principle of proximity calls for related items to be grouped visually, creating less clutter and making for a more organized layout. Items unrelated to each other should be placed further apart, to emphasize their lack of relationship.I find it hard to understand why certain elements are grouped under differnt headings even tho they both are based on 9/11. Surely they could be put together for easier User Interface Design…..

Repetition typically shows up on websites as repeated visual elements that appear throughout the pages on the site. Repeated elements in a consistent manner help to promote the organization of the website and reinforce continuity.Repetition also gives your visitors a sense of site recognition and consistency. Using a repeated logo and keeping the headings, fonts, colors, sizes and styles the same across all pages adds a repetitive continuity that enhances the flow of the website. I think with the problem is that although there are headings being used the content underneath is too dence. It also dosnt allow for a good sence of flow as the headings are spaced out and disjointed meaning the user has to scroll down to see all of the headings before being able to decide where to start. There also isn’t enough difference between headings.

Contrast most people think colour but really its about the elements on the page standing appart but in a uniformed manner. There is a lack of contrast on there is a lack of hierarchy and this leaves the viewers eye roam the page uninvolved with any information.

Kevin Kelly writer, photographer, conservationist, or bizzare overly religious and obsessive nutjob

Look at this face!!! Its the kind of face that wouldn’t look amiss preaching religious jibber jabber on Patricks Street in Cork.


Its the beard that sticks out to me, the beard of a man with a back story.

And what a back story he has. He ‘ slept on the supposed spot where Jesus was crucified and  had a religious experience which led him to live as if he only had six months left to live. He  then went and lived peacefully with his parents, anonymously gave away his money, visited his friends, and came back home to “die” on the night of Halloween.’

I can’t imaging Kevin was a lady killer….but by gosh theres no denying his work in the technology theory and journalism field has made an impact on society today.

To read more on how Kevin links religion to God check out

How Computer Nerds Describe God:

A little more detail on his background; Kevin is Senior Maverick at Wired magazine. He co-founded Wired in 1993, and served as its Executive Editor from its inception until 1999. He has just finished a book for Viking/Penguin called What Technology Wants, published October 18, 2010. He is also editor and publisher of the Cool Tools website, which gets half a million unique visitors per month. From 1984-1990 Kelly was publisher and editor of the Whole Earth Review, a journal of unorthodox technical news. He co-founded the ongoing Hackers’ Conference, and was involved with the launch of the WELL, a pioneering online service started in 1985. He authored the best-selling New Rules for the New Economy and the classic book on decentralized emergent systems, Out of Control

Ivan Sutherland

YAY for computers!!

“the computer has been in a sense nothing but a very elaborate calculating machine, but now we are making the computer almost like a human assistant and the computer will seem to have human like intelligence”

GOOD GOD MAN! Don’t go freakin’ people out, we don’t want another Orson Wells War of the Worlds incident our hands!! (if you’re in need of a reminder about that check out this podcast Click to listen

The fear of some sort of hybrid man/machine teaching itself how we function and taking over the world
The quote above is taken from the video below which discusses software Ivan Sutherland developed in his 1963 thesis at MIT’s Lincoln Labs, “Sketchpad, A Man-Machine Graphical Communication System”, described as one of the most influential computer programs ever written.

It’s like watching the birth of Photoshop……or worse CAD..

How could someone sit down and come up with this stuff? Well when asked, “How could you possibly have done the first interactive graphics program, the first non-procedural programming language, the first object oriented software system, all in one year?” Ivan replied: “Well, I didn’t know it was hard.”

you know you pictured that too 🙂 unfortunately Ivan Sutherland actually looks like this….

Lev Manovich


Lev Manovich is the author of Software Takes Command (released under CC license, 2008), Soft Cinema: Navigating the Database (The MIT Press, 2005), and The Language of New Media (The MIT Press, 2001) which is described as “the most suggestive and broad ranging media history since Marshall McLuhan.” Manovich is a Professor in Visual Arts Department, University of California – San Diego, a Director of the Software Studies Initiative at California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology (CALIT2), and a Visiting Professor at European Graduate School (EGS).

I think its a good idea to listen to the man himself. Maybe while reading Soft Culture so heres a podcast link …how handy 🙂Free Podcast 🙂

I think this quote really sums up the work being done by Lev and his research. “In addition to our practical work, we at Software Studies Initiative are equally interested in exploring such larger questions. We believe that they can only be productively addressed using “software studies” approach, i.e. in depth understanding of software technologies behind cultural analytics.”

Here in the video below we see what is described to use in Software Culture.


Oculus Rift – the first truly immersive virtual reality headset for video games.
The Rift is awesome and its still in Beta form. Its so exciting that it will soon be on the market!

Rift is currently on Kickstart which allows  anyone to pledge money to the development process. If you’d like to donate money to The Rift Click here!

Oculus Rift is a virtual reality headset designed to blow your mind.

It gives an incredibly wide field of view, high resolution display, and ultra-low head latency tracking, the Rift provides a truly immersive experience that allows you to step inside your favorite game and explore new worlds like never before.

The man the myth and the legend John Carmack is really trying to fire up the sci fi corners of our minds.

Carmack talks about the Rift being used inconjunction with Galvanic nerve stimulation to enhance gaming experiences further. This would allow the player to feel contact inside the game, a revolutionary concept for gaming but one I’m sure every player would love to witness. Read more here

The resolution of the current SDK model seems not so impressive with 1280×800, however the hFOV of 110° and the vFOV of 90° does, this means you don’t look into two small screens, you don’t see the screens edges anymore and are “inside” of whatever you look at. Similarily cool sounds the promise of ultra low latency for the gamer in you.
And I think the “low” resolution ain’t all bad, it allows to play games stereoscopic on an average machine as well, hence when doublebuffering you get to calcluate 4 Frames “at once”
Check out the man talking about his invention @

In his own words the Oculus Rift is “fundimentally cool” what more can you say 🙂